Global Warming

What is Global Warming?

Global warming refers to extreme changes in the Earth’s climate. The term illustrates dramatic increases in atmospheric and water temperatures experienced as a result of growing amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Humans are responsible for producing these gases via cars, electricity, and factories. The main products of these activities that are to blame for global warming are methane and carbon dioxide; as carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon compounds go farther and farther into the Earth’s atmosphere, they deplete the ozone layer.

Holes in the ozone are allowing harmful ultra violet rays (that are usually deflected by the ozone layer) to make their way to lower levels of the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases absorb and give off radiation from the UV rays, contributing to extreme temperature conditions.

For greater understanding of global warming and the greenhouse effect, check out:

“Global Warming.” National Geographic. Web. 02 Dec. 2011. <http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/?source=NavEnvGlobal>.
“The Greenhouse Effect Is a Natural Phenomenon That Warms the Earth’s Surface.” BIS. UK Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <http://www.bis.gov.uk/go-science/climatescience/greenhouse-effect>.

Effects of Global Climate Change

Global warming has had extreme effects on the planet. Earth’s average surface temperature has been increasing; since the 1880s, temperature has increased by between 1 and 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit. While this may sound like a small number, it has heavily impacted other aspects of our global ecosystem, and it is continuing to rise at a faster rate. Arctic ice is vanishing and glaciers are melting; as a result, polar bears, penguins, and other animals have begun to suffer.

The recent frequency of heat waves, intense tropical storms, and natural disasters has also been partially attributed to trends in global climate change. Extreme weather will most likely have a negative impact on crops and agriculture. As staple crops become scarcer, they will become more expensive. Such products include rice, wheat, corn, and soy, which are also utilized in animal feed; the result: prices of many other types of food will increase as well, making all food relatively more expensive.

To read more about the effects of global warming, visit:

Nelson, Gerald C. Climate Change: Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009. Google Books.
“Temperature Changes.” US Environmental Protection Agency. 14 Apr. 2011. Web. 02 Dec. 2011. <http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/recenttc.html>.

Legislation

The Kyoto Protocol is an international effort to combat global climate change. Developed at the United Nations’ Convention on Climate Change in 1997, this treaty is aimed at capping the number of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere and it intends to hold nations accountable to their environmental commitments. 191 countries have signed and ratified the treaty. The only country that has not ratified is the United States.

Perhaps the most well-known piece of legislation in the US is the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act was created to decrease the number of air pollutants being released into the atmosphere, subsequently having a positive impact on air quality and contributing to the general health of the population. Amendments have been made to the Clean Air Act over time to account for ozone depletion and acid rain. The US also utilizes regulations on fuel, energy, and water in order to help the environment.

For more information on these pieces of legislation:

“Kyoto Protocol.” United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Web. 09 Dec. 2011. <http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php>.
“Summary of the Clean Air Act.” US Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 09 Dec. 2011. <http://www.epa.gov/lawsregs/laws/caa.html>.

Combating Global Warming—Being Green

In today’s society, the color green has become synonymous with environmental friendliness. Governments, businesses, and individuals can all contribute towards mitigating climate change, and in many cases, all of these groups have been working hard to become greener. Some towns use monetary incentives in order to motivate their citizens to become more environmentally conscious and friendly. The Federal Government also has incentives in place for businesses to encourage them to reduce their carbon footprints. On the other end of the environmental responsibility spectrum, the government uses taxes to discourage and penalize businesses that are particularly harmful to the environment.

Switching to renewable energy sources can help to protect the environment from damage that results from burning fossil fuels for energy. Scientific developments and the spread of wind, solar, and geothermal power are helping to make the world less carbon-dependent; they also help by producing less methane in the process of providing energy. On the whole, these sources of energy are more sustainable and less harmful to the planet. However, there are some sources of greenhouse gases that are harder for mankind to combat. Many animals emit methane from their bodies during food consumption and digestion-related processes.

To learn more about sustainable energy, you may want to read these sources:

“Cities Offer Incentives to Go Green.” MSNBC.com. 27 Dec. 2007. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22410962/ns/us_news-environment/t/cities-offer-incentives-save-energy/>.
Tester, Jefferson W. Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2005. Google Books.

Carbon Footprints

“Carbon footprints” are used to measure the impact that certain individuals, products, and activities have on global warming. This metric attempts to quantify the amount of greenhouse gases that are being produced. Greenhouse gases are comprised of many elements and compounds, but Carbon Dioxide is often used as a proxy for these elements in calculations and discussions related to carbon footprints.

Almost every activity that occurs in the course of a single day has some impact on the environment. Transportation, electricity, and manufacturing are often highly detrimental and are major areas where people, businesses, and countries can cut down on their carbon footprints. Understanding the size of carbon footprints and what contributes to them allows each participant in the global environment to take action to reduce it.

More information about carbon footprints can be found by reading:

Hertwich, Edgar G., and Glen P. Peters. “Carbon Footprint of Nations: A Global, Trade-Linked Analysis.” Environmental Science & Technology 43.16 (2009): 6414-420. 15 June 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2011. <pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es803496a>.
Wiedmann, Thomas, and Jan Minx. A Definition of “Carbon Footprint” Rep. ISA UK Research & Consulting, June 2007. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <http://www.censa.org.uk/docs/ISA-UK_Report_07-01_carbon_footprint.pdf>.

 

 

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